In an essay for Sound Stage (1965), Hollywood song-and-dance man Gene Kelly confesses to his readers that dancing, because it is "a three-dimensional art-like sculpture," is actually not a good medium for motion pictures. In fact, the star continues, when such bodily movement is transferred to screen, most of the physical force is lost. Also missing is what Kelly calls "the personality of the dancer's whole body, which coupled with line and style, form the basis of a dance performance." For these reasons (and others we'll explore), Gene Kelly along with his frequent co-director Stanley Donen, worked arduously to modify the way dance numbers were shot onscreen. Indeed, via special effects (Anchors Aweigh), vigorous camera movement, on-location shooting (On the Town), and even through the burden of Cinemascope (It's Always Fair Weather), Kelly and Donen created and perfected something called cine-dance, or "any dancing choreographed specifically and particularly to be filmed or televised." This class will consider the concept of cine-dance and its evolution over a decade in six films starring and/or (co-)directed by Gene Kelly.